What is translation in eukaryotic cells?

What is translation in eukaryotic cells?

Eukaryotic translation is the biological process by which messenger RNA is translated into proteins in eukaryotes. It consists of four phases: gene translation, elongation, termination, and recapping.

Where does translation occur in eukaryotes?

the cytoplasm
Thus, in eukaryotes, while transcription occurs in the nucleus, translation occurs in the cytoplasm.

What are the 3 stages of eukaryotic translation?

Translation has pretty much the same three parts, but they have fancier names: initiation, elongation, and termination. Initiation (“beginning”): in this stage, the ribosome gets together with the mRNA and the first tRNA so translation can begin.

How is translation regulation in eukaryotes?

Translational Control via the Cap-Recognition Process A second extensively used mechanism in eukaryotes to control the rate of translation initiation involves the mRNA 5′-cap recognition process by eIF4F. Binding of eIF4F to the cap structure can be hindered by the eIF4E homolog, 4E-HP (see below).

Where does translation occur in eukaryotes and prokaryotes?

Prokaryotic transcription occurs in the cytoplasm alongside translation. Prokaryotic transcription and translation can occur simultaneously. This is impossible in eukaryotes, where transcription occurs in a membrane-bound nucleus while translation occurs outside the nucleus in the cytoplasm.

How is translation controlled?

Two general modes of control can be envisaged — global control, in which the translation of most mRNAs in the cell is regulated; and mRNA-specific control, whereby the translation of a defined group of mRNAs is modulated without affecting general protein biosynthesis or the translational status of the cellular …

What are the 5 main steps of translation?

The multi-step translation process professional translators use

  • Step 1: Scope out the text to be translated.
  • Step 2: Initial translation.
  • Step 3: Review the accuracy of the translation.
  • Step 4: Take a break.
  • Step 5: Refine translation wording.

What are the steps involved in translation in eukaryotes?

In a eukaryotic cell, transcription occurs in the nucleus, and translation occurs in the cytoplasm. • Translation involves three major steps : 1. INITIATION 2. ELONGATION 3. TERMINATION 5. 1. INITIATION The initiation of translation in eukaryotes is complex, involving at least 10 eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) & divided into 4 steps : a.

What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic translation?

Eukaryotic Translation. The broad outlines of eukaryotic protein synthesis are the same as in prokaryotic protein synthesis. The genetic code is generally the same (some microorganisms and eukaryotic mitochondria use slightly different codons), rRNA and protein sequences are recognizably similar, and the same set of amino acids is used in all…

What is translation in biology?

2. INTRODUCTION • Translation is basically a synonym process of protein synthesis. • It is the process in which the protein is synthesized from the information contained in a molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA).

How do eukaryotic mRNAs reach initiation sites for translation?

Initiation sites in eukaryotic mRNAs are reached via a scanning mechanism which predicts that translation should start at the AUG codon nearest the 5′ end of the mRNA. Interest has focused on mechanisms that occasionally allow escape from this first-AUG rule.