What is the Plasma proteome?

What is the Plasma proteome?

Blood plasma is an exceptional proteome in many respects. It is the most complex human-derived proteome, containing other tissue proteomes as subsets. It is collected in huge amounts (millions of liters) for preparation of protein therapeutic products.

Why is human proteome important?

Researchers completed a draft map of the human proteome—the set of all proteins in the human body. The accomplishment will help advance a broad range of research into human health and disease. In 2003, the Human Genome Project created a draft map of the human genome—all the genes in the human body.

How many proteins are in human plasma?

THE KNOWN PLASMA PROTEOME So far this search has produced evidence that almost 300 proteins have been detected in plasma (or serum) to date (Table I). We have included each subunit of multisubunit proteins and one or more fragments of a protein where these may have separate biological significance.

What percentage of human proteome is known?

Proteome map identifies more than 90 percent of all human proteins.

What is plasma database?

Plasma Proteome Database (PPD) is one of the largest resources on proteins reported in plasma and serum. PPD hosts qualitative and quantitative information on proteins (including those from MRM-based assays) reported in plasma and serum and hence serves as reference platform for biomarker discovery.

What are the methods to study the plasma proteome?

Mass spectrometry-based methods, affinity proteomics, and micro arrays are the most common technologies for large-scale study of proteins.

What is the goal of the Human Proteome Project?

Specific research initiatives within HUPO collectively make up the Human Proteome Project (HPP). The HPP begins where the Human Genome Project ended, and the ultimate goal is to identify and map proteins coded by roughly 20,300 protein-coding genes.

Why is the proteome larger than the genome?

The proteome is larger than the genome, especially in eukaryotes, in the sense that there are more proteins than genes. This is due to alternative splicing of genes and post-translational modifications like glycosylation or phosphorylation.

What is the meaning of proteome?

Listen to pronunciation. (PROH-tee-ome) The complete set of proteins made by an organism. Proteins are made in different amounts and at different times, depending on how they work, when they are needed, and how they interact with other proteins inside cells.

How do you get plasma?

A needle is placed into a vein in your arm. Plasma is collected through a process call plasmapheresis and is conducted in cycles that may take up to an hour. Whole blood is drawn. The plasma is separated from the red blood cells and other cellular components.

What can we learn from the human plasma proteome?

The human plasma proteome holds the promise of a revolution in disease diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring provided that major challenges in proteomics and related disciplines can be addressed.

How much of the variation in plasma protein levels is genetic?

In aggregate these studies show that 12–95% of the quantitative variation in specific plasma protein levels is genetic in origin with an average of 62% for the proteins shown. Gel patterns of plasma proteins from monozygotic twins are quantitatively almost indistinguishable whether analyzed by one-dimensional ( 118) or two-dimensional approaches.

Does storage temperature affect the structure of plasma proteins?

The last is typically a small effect since methods of venipuncture typically used in studies of plasma proteins are well standardized, and a recent report demonstrates that extended storage at −70 °C preserves the structure and activity of plasma proteins tested ( 115 ).

Why is proteomics not more widely used in clinical research?

While proteomics can demonstrate and sometimes measure many proteins, the techniques required have been difficult to apply to a number of samples large enough to prove a clinical correlation at the research level.