# What is scale factor in UTM projection?

## What is scale factor in UTM projection?

The central meridian in each UTM zone has a scale factor of 0.9996, which means that measurements along it fall short of true scale by 4 units in 10,000 (or 1 unit in 2,500). This is the maximum scale error anywhere within the zone and is the accuracy standard that the system was designed to meet.

What does it mean if your scale factor is greater than 1 for UTM?

A scale factor less than 1 means that the actual distance on the Earth’s surface is longer than the actual distance on the map. Whereas, the scale factor of more than 1 demonstrates that the actual distance on the Earth is shorter than the map distance. For UTM, the central meridian (CM) has a scale factor of 0.9996.

### Where within a UTM zone is the scale factor equal to 1?

The two small circles are 180 kilometers east and west of the central Meridian at the Equator. The small circles have a scale factor of 1, meaning a distance of 100 meters in the ellipsoid would be the same on the map projection. The centerline of a UTM grid zone has a scale factor of 0.9996.

How do you calculate UTM projection?

Calculating the Boundaries of a UTM Zone Calculate the eastern boundary of any UTM zone by multiplying the zone number by 6 and subtracting 180. Subtract 6 degrees to obtain the western boundary. Therefore to find the eastern boundary of UTM zone 11: Eastern boundary of zone 11 = (11 * 6) – 180 = -114 degrees.

## What is scale factor in projection?

Scale factor is a unitless value applied to the center point or line of a map projection. The scale factor is usually slightly less than one. The UTM coordinate system, which uses the Transverse Mercator projection, has a scale factor of 0.9996.

What are the properties of UTM projection?

The cylinder is secant in the UTM projection; it intersects the globe creating two standard meridians that are 180 km to each side of the central meridian. Also since a Transverse Mercator projection results in extreme distortion in polar areas, the UTM zones are limited to 80°S and 84°N latitudes.

### Is UTM an equal area projection?

The area distortion is more in conformal maps (TM, UTM) compared to equal-area maps. Therefore, the transformation to equal-area projection is performed in applications in which area data is important [3-5].

Where in a zone is the scale factor 1?

Let’s use transverse Mercator with a custom zone, with central meridian 30, the zone is 3 degrees wide at the equator, with a scale factor k=1, it means that the cylinder touching the spheroid along the central meridian.

## What does it mean if the scale factor is greater than 1?

The scale factor can be any positive number, including fractions and decimals. If the scale factor is less than 1, the dilated figure is smaller than the original, if it is greater than 1 the dilated figure is larger than the original.

How do you find scale factor?

The basic formula to find the scale factor of a figure is: Scale factor = Dimension of the new shape ÷ Dimension of the original shape.

### What does it mean if your scale factor is greater than 1?

If the scale factor is greater than 1, the image is an enlargement (a stretch). If the scale factor is between 0 and 1, the image is a reduction (a shrink). If the scale factor is 1, the figure and the image are congruent.

What is the second scale factor of UTM?

second scale factor is what that transform between projection coordinate system (UTM) and WGS84 coordinate system.it’s formula (with negligible truncation) is: k=k0 (1+ (landa-landa0)^2*cos (fi)^2/2) where:

## What is the difference between UTM and secant projection?

As with UTM, a secant form of the projection is used. For both the north and south zones, the scale factor at the pole is 0.994, and a parallel of true scale is created at 81º06’52.3”. The system achieves the same accuracy (scale error of one unit in 2,500) as the UTM system.

What is UTM projection in geography?

UTM Projection As the name suggests, the Universal Transverse Mercator projection is based on the cylindrical Transverse Mercator projection. The cylinder in the Transverse Mercator projection is tangent along a meridian (line of longitude) or it is secant, in which case it cuts through the earth at two standard meridians.

### What is the scale error of a UTM projection?

The scale error within each UTM projection zone remains less than 0.1 percent, or in other words scale distortion is kept to less than 1 part in 1000. Naturally for areas that span more than one UTM zone, the distortion and error increase. The Mercator and Transverse Mercator projections are conformal projections.