What is kala-azar Slideshare?
KALA AZAR • Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites of to the genus Leishmania and is transmitted by the bite of sand fly. • This disease is also known as kala azar, black fever, sandfly disease, Dum-Dum fever. • Human infection is caused by about 21 of 30 species that infect mammals.
What is the description of kala-azar?
Kala-azar: A chronic and potentially fatal parasitic disease of the viscera (the internal organs, particularly the liver, spleen, bone marrow and lymph nodes) due to infection by the parasite called Leishmania donovani.
What is kala-azar and how it is caused?
Leishmaniasis is caused by a protozoa parasite from over 20 Leishmania species. Over 90 sandfly species are known to transmit Leishmania parasites. There are 3 main forms of the disease: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar is fatal if left untreated in over 95% of cases.
What is the vector of kala-azar?
Disease is caused by protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. Phlebetomus argentipes (sand fly) is the vector transmitting Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar) in India.
Why leishmaniasis is called kala azar?
Light colored person show grayish discoloration of the skin of hands, feet, abdomen and face which gives the Indian name Kala-Azar meaning “Black fever”.
What is used to treat kala azar?
The disease is usually fatal, if left untreated. Traditionally kala-azar is treated with four weeks of injections of sodium stibogluconate, a pentavalent antimonial.
What is kala azar control Programme?
Concerned with the increasing problem of Kala-azar in the country, the Government of India (GOI) launched a centrally sponsored Kala-azar Control Programme in the endemic states in 1990-91. The GoI provided drugs, insecticides and technical support and state governments provided costs involved in implementation.
Is kala azar elimination in India?
Since 1992, after years of accelerated programme implementation, the number of kala-azar cases in India has dropped by 97%. Fatalities have fallen from 1419 in 1992 to 58 in 2018. In 2020, only 37 deaths4 were reported. A series of public health measures have sustained the Indian kala-azar elimination drive.
How is kala azar diagnosis?
The most common serological tests used in the diagnosis of kala–azar are the DAT and the rk39 dipstick tests. These tests indicate the presence of antibodies against Leishmania, therefore confirming the parasite (antigen) is, or was, present in the body.
What is kala azar Wikipedia?
Kala azar, also called visceral leishmaniasis, is a disease in which a parasite migrates to the internal organs such as the liver, spleen (hence “visceral”), and bone marrow. If left untreated, will almost always result in the death of the host.
What is kala-azar Class 9?
What is Kala azar? Kala azar is a slow advancing and naturally occurring disease that is caused by a protozoan parasite of Leishmania genus. In India, the only parasite that causes this disease is Leishmania donovani.
Is kala-azar eradicated from India?
The eradication of kala azar in India is achievable and there are favorable circumstances for doing so. Humans are the only reservoir host in this region for the parasite causing the disease. The only way the disease spreads from human to human is by one insect in the region, Phlebotomus argentipes.
What is the strategy for kala azar control?
23. Kala azar control programme The strategy of kala azar contorl broadly includes three major activities • Interruption of transmission for reducing vector population by undertaking indoor insecticidal spry twice annual major activities • Early diagnosis and treatment of the kala azar cases • Health education for the community awareness
What is Kala-azar?
Kala-azar • Kala-azar is a slow progressing indigenous disease caused by a protozoan parasite of genus Leishmania. • Leishmania donovani is the only parasite causing this disease in india. • PKDL (Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis ) caused by Leishmania Donovani 7. P.argentipes: 8.
What is the mode of transmission of kala azar?
Mode of transmission • In india Kala Azar is transmitted from person to person by the bite of the female Phlebotomine Sandfly. • Transmission may also take place by contamination of the bite wound or by contact when the insect is crushed during the contact act of feeding • Blood transfussion • Contaminted syringes and needles.
What is the prevalence of kala azar in India?
4. India • Has been known to occur epidemically endemically in well defined areas in the eastern sector of the country viz Assam West bengal Bihar Eastern dist of Utter Pradesh Sikkim and to very lesser extent in Tamil nadu & Orissa. • Kala Azar is endemic in 52 dist Bihar, Jharkhand, Westbengal, UP • About 130million pop at risk of the disease