What is ECM stem cells?
Extracellular matrix (ECM) provides both structural support and dynamic microenvironment for cells regulating their behavior and fate. As a critical component of stem cell niche ECM maintains stem cells and activates their proliferation and differentiation under specific stimuli.
Do stem cells have an ECM?
ECM is a key component of stem cell niches and is involved in various aspects of stem cell behavior, thus having a major impact on tissue homeostasis and regeneration under physiological and pathological conditions.
What is stem cell differentiation?
Definition. Stem-cell differentiation is the process by which a more specialised cell is formed from a stem cell, leading to loss of some of the stem cell’s developmental potential.
What is ECM in plant cell?
Extracellular matrix (ECM) The cell wall of plant cells is a type of extracellular matrix. In animals, the ECM can surround cells as fibrils that contact the cells on all sides, or as a sheet called the basement membrane that cells ‘sit on’.
What is ECM Remodelling?
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a highly dynamic structure that is present in all tissues and continuously undergoes controlled remodelling. This process involves quantitative and qualitative changes in the ECM, mediated by specific enzymes that are responsible for ECM degradation, such as metalloproteinases.
Does plant cells have ECM?
The collection of extracellular molecules secreted by animal and plant cells is named Extracellular Matrix (ECM). ECM is generally composed of well-organized networks of polysaccharides and proteins, which play important functions in different tissues.
What is ECM in biology?
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an intricate network composed of an array of multidomain macromolecules organized in a cell/tissue-specific manner. Components of the ECM link together to form a structurally stable composite, contributing to the mechanical properties of tissues.
How do stem cells mechanosense the stiffness of their microenvironment?
Stem cells mechanosense the stiffness of their microenvironment, which impacts differentiation. Although tissue hydration anti-correlates with stiffness, extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness is clearly transduced into gene expression via adhesion and cytoskeleton proteins that tune fates.
How is stem cell differentiation regulated?
Stem Cell Differentiation is Regulated by Extracellular Matrix Mechanics Lucas R. Smith, Sangkyun Cho, and Dennis E. Discher Author informationArticle notesCopyright and License informationDisclaimer Molecular & Cell Biophysics Lab, Physical Sciences Oncology Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
How do minimal matrix models of scars modulate stiff-niche stem-cell responses?
Fractal heterogeneity in minimal matrix models of scars modulates stiff-niche stem-cell responses via nuclear exit of a mechanorepressor. Nat Mater14: 951–960, 2015. doi:10.1038/nmat4350.
How do stem cells differentiate into myofibroblast?
A host of resident stem cells are known to differentiate into myofibroblast, which in many cases is known to be mechanosensitive. Myofibroblasts secrete matrix components that incorporate into the matrix to increase stiffness.