What does an alky unit do?
An alkylation unit (alky) is one of the conversion processes used in petroleum refineries. It is used to convert isobutane and low-molecular-weight alkenes (primarily a mixture of propene and butene) into alkylate, a high octane gasoline component.
What form would hydrofluoric acid take on the alkylation unit?
Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) Alkylation Units, often referred to as HF Alky units, are process units used in petroleum refining to convert isobutane and alkenes (primarily propylene or butylene) into alkylate, which is used to make gasoline.
What are alkylates used for?
Alkylate is high in octane but has low volatility and can be added to motor gasoline and aviation gasoline to increase octane while meeting stringent volatility specifications.
What is HF oil?
A poisonous liquid acid composed of hydrogen and fluorine. Hydrofluoric acid [HF] is used primarily because it is the only common, inexpensive mineral acid that can dissolve siliceous minerals.
What is alkylate fuel?
Alkylate is a gasoline blending stock that is produced by the acid-catalyzed reactions of olefins with normal hydrocarbons to yield higher boiling, and higher octane, iso-alkanes (Leffler, 2000).
What is a hydrocracker unit?
A hydrocracking unit, or hydrocracker, takes gas oil, which is heavier and has a higher boiling range than distillate fuel oil, and cracks the heavy molecules into distillate and gasoline in the presence of hydrogen and a catalyst.
How do you make HF acid?
Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is produced by the reaction of concentrated sulfuric acid with fluorspar (calcium fluoride): CaF2+H2SO4→2HF+CaSO4. The reaction can take place in two stages.
What is alkylation unit?
ALKYLATION UNIT It is simply the unit in the petroleum refining process where alkylation take place. 3. LEARNING OUTCOMES 1. ALKYLATION/ ALKYLATION UNIT 2. ALKYLATION REACTIONS 3. PROCESS VARIABLES 4. ALKYLATION FEEDSTOCKS 5. ALKYLATION PRODUCTS 6. CATALYSTS 7. HYDROLUORIC ACID ALKYLATION PROCESSES -Philips Process -UOP 8.
What are the hazards of alkylation unit?
HAZARDS AND SAFETY MEASURES IN ALKYLATION UNIT There are two main hazards inherent in the alkylation unit, which are: 1. Large volumes of light hydrocarbon which are highly flammable and are potential explosives if released. 2.
What is personal protective equipment (PPE)?
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE) These are pieces of equipment or apparel used or worn to protect an individual working in an alkylation unit. Within both HF and sulfuric acid alkylation units, readily available safety showers, water hydrant and hose, and eye wash fountains should be provided and regularly inspected to assure good working order.
What is the alkylation unit feedstock?
Oleﬁns (ranging from C3-C5) and isobutane are used as alkylation unit feedstock Olefin feed originates from the FCC Unit. The olefin feed is also likely to contain diluents (such as propane, n-butane and n-pentane), non- condensable (such as ethane and hydrogen) and contaminants.