What do you mean by heavy ions?

What do you mean by heavy ions?

heavy ion, in nuclear physics, any particle with one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).

What are the two types of fusion?

Fusion reactions are of two basic types: (1) those that preserve the number of protons and neutrons and (2) those that involve a conversion between protons and neutrons.

Is Proton a heavy-ion?

Protons and Heavier Ions A major difference between protons and electrons is that protons are much heavier than electrons and therefore lose only a very small fraction of their energy in an individual interaction, scattering minimally in the process.

Whats an atomic ion?

An ion is a charged atom or molecule. It is charged because the number of electrons do not equal the number of protons in the atom or molecule. An atom can acquire a positive charge or a negative charge depending on whether the number of electrons in an atom is greater or less then the number of protons in the atom.

What is the heavier nucleus that is created in fusion?

Depiction of the deuterium (D) and tritium (T) fusion reaction, which produces a helium nucleus (or alpha particle) and a high energy neutron. Nuclear Fusion reactions power the Sun and other stars. In a fusion reaction, two light nuclei merge to form a single heavier nucleus.

Who discovered fusion?

In the 1930’s scientists, particularly Hans Bethe, discovered that nuclear fusion was possible and that it was the energy source for the sun.

What does stellarator mean?

Definition of stellarator : a toroidal device for producing controlled nuclear fusion that involves the confining and heating of a gaseous plasma by means of an externally applied magnetic field.

Why choose heavy ion fusion?

Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory Heavy ion fusion is an IFE option because of long-recognized advantages: •Established accelerator base:High energy particle accelerators of MJ-beam energy scale have separately exhibited intrinsic efficiencies, pulse-rates, average power levels, and durability required for IFE.

What is Heavy Ion Fusion Driver?

Heavy ion fusion driver concept: heavy ion dE/dx~Z1-2enables ~10 GeV to stop in targets. Induction acceleration with superconducting magnets enables high peak beam currents, 100’s of TW peak power. Induction acceleration is durable, efficient, and enables high pulse rates, like transformers!

What is the highest energy gain factor of fusion power?

of 1.25 – the current world record of Q, fusion energy gain factor. Results of European-based study of heavy ion driven fusion power system (HIDIF, GSI-98-06) incorporates telescoping beams of multiple isotopic species. This technique multiplies the 6-D phase space usable for the design of HIF drivers.

Who is the director of heavy ion fusion science?

Slide 1 Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory Briefing for the National Academy review of Inertial Fusion Energy B. Grant Logan Director, U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory, a collaboration of LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL heavy ion research