What are phosphate prodrugs?
Phosphate prodrugs as sodium salts are generally freely soluble in water and readily hydrolyzed in vivo by alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme widely distributed in a variety of tissues. As a nonspecific enzyme, alkaline phosphatase catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphomonoesters, as well as phosphoramidates.
What is meant by phosphate ester?
an organic ester of a phosphate such as phosphoric acid with an organic compound such as glucose or sorbitol; see also organophosphorus.
What is the importance of esters in biochemistry?
Esters of pyrophosphoric acid and triphosphoric acid are also important in biochemistry. Esters of these acids are present in every plant and animal cell. They are biochemical intermediates in the transformation of food into usable energy.
What are phosphate esters used for?
Phosphate esters have a multitude of uses including flame retardants, plasticizers, hydraulic fluids, solvents, extraction agents, antifoam agents, and coatings for electronic devices.
Why are esters prodrugs?
The rationale behind the prodrug strategy is to introduce lipophilicity and mask hydrogen bonding groups of an active compound by the addition of another moiety, most commonly an ester. An ideal ester prodrug should exhibit the following properties: 1). Weak (or no) activity against any pharmacological target, 2).
Why are esters used in prodrugs?
Esters are estimated approximately 49% of all marketed prodrugs are activated by enzymatic hydrolysis . Ester prodrugs are most often used to enhance the lipophilicity, and thus the passive membrane permeability, of water-soluble drugs by masking charged groups such as carboxylic acids and phosphates  .
Is phosphate phosphorus the same?
The terms phosphate and phosphorus can mean the same thing in test results. So your results may show phosphorus levels rather than phosphate levels. If your test shows you have high phosphate/phosphorus levels, it may mean you have: Kidney disease.
What is a suitable prodrug concept for phosphate esters?
A suitable prodrug concept for phosphate esters: masking groups (MG) that allow diffusion across the plasma membrane are introduced by chemical synthesis. Inside cells the groups are removed and the phosphate ester may accumulate.
What are phosphate ester inhibitors?
Phosphate ester-type inhibitors are the reaction products of ethoxylated, propoxylated, or butoxylated alcohols or phenols with phosphating agents [123–125 ]. Inhibitors for both general corrosion and cracking-type corrosion are obtained by the reaction of a nitrogen base and a phosphate ester [ 126, 127 ].
Are phosphate esters organic salts?
Chemically, phosphate esters can be called organic salts of orthophosphoric acid O=P (OH)3. They are also organophosphorous compounds, of which there are thousands. However, only one relatively small group has found significant use as basestocks for synthetic fluids.
How are masking groups introduced in phosphate esters?
Figure 1. A suitable prodrug concept for phosphate esters: masking groups (MG) that allow diffusion across the plasma membrane are introduced by chemical synthesis. Inside cells the groups are removed and the phosphate ester may accumulate.