How does the glycerol 3-phosphate shuttle work?

How does the glycerol 3-phosphate shuttle work?

Function. The glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle allows the NADH synthesized in the cytosol by glycolysis to contribute to the oxidative phosphorylation pathway in the mitochondria to generate ATP. It has been found in animals, fungi, and plants.

What two enzymes are involved in the glycerol 3-phosphate shuttle?

GPS is made up of two enzymes, cytosolic and mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (cGPDH and mGPDH, respectively).

How many ATP does the glycerol-phosphate shuttle produce?

In muscle, the glycerol-phosphate shuttle occurs, which results in 1.5 ATP per NADH.

What is mitochondrial shuttle system?

The mitochondrial shuttles are systems used to transport reducing agents across the inner mitochondrial membrane. NADH as well as NAD+ cannot cross the membrane, but it can reduce another molecule like FAD and [QH2] that can cross the membrane, so that its electrons can reach the electron transport chain.

What enzyme converts glycerol to glycerol 3-phosphate?

Glycerol is converted to glycerol-3-phosphate by a glycerol kinase enzyme with concomitant regeneration of ATP by an acetate or pyruvate kinase enzyme.

Is glycerol 3-phosphate shuttle reversible?

Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible redox conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (a.k.a. glycerone phosphate, outdated) to sn-glycerol 3-phosphate.

In which organ does glycerol phosphate shuttle system work?

the mitochondrion
Discussion. The glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle is a pathway that translocates electrons produced during glycolysis across the inner membrane of the mitochondrion for oxidative phosphorylation by oxidizing cytoplasmic NADH to NAD+.

What is the purpose of malate shuttle?

The malate-aspartate shuttle system, also called the malate shuttle, is an essential system used by mitochondria, that allows electrons to move across the impermeable membrane between the cytosol and the mitochondrial matrix. The electrons are created during glycolysis, and are needed for oxidative phosphorylation.

What is mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase?

Mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD2), catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of glycerol-3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and concomitantly transfers two electrons from FAD to the electron transport chain. GPD2 consists of 4 identical subunits.

What is the function of the glycerol 3 phosphate shuttle?

Glycerol Phosphate Shuttle. The glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle is a mechanism that regenerates NAD+ from NADH, a by-product of glycolysis. Its importance in transporting reducing equivalents is secondary to the malate-aspartate shuttle.

How do lipopolysaccharide activated macrophages regulate glucose oxidation?

Macrophages are activated during microbial infection to coordinate inflammatory responses and host defense. Here we find that in macrophages activated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD2) regulates glucose oxidation to drive inflammatory responses.

How many ATP are released from NADH to glycerol-phosphate shuttle?

Skeletal muscle and the brain utilize glycerol-phosphate shuttle and liberate 2 ATP from NADH. Lehninger, A. L., Nelson, D. L., & Cox, M. M. (2000).

How is glycerol-3p oxidized to dihydroxyacetone?

The GLYCEROL-3P is oxidized to DIHYDROXY-ACETONE-PHOSPHATE at the outer surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane by mitochondrial CPLX-7723 which donates the electrons to the mitochondrial quinone pool. The DIHYDROXY-ACETONE-PHOSPHATE is channeled back to the cytosol.