Features of Scandinavian Architecture

In the last century, it was in the Scandinavian countries that the transition to a consistent regionalism was first identified. First, after adopting modernism, the Scandinavian architects gradually began to depart from it by the thirties of the last century. Town-planning principles of layout, characteristic for this style: line building, flat roof, rectangular volumes and other poorly suited to the climatic conditions of Scandinavia. Regionalism, as one of the branches of organic architecture in the second half of the twentieth century, inspired the creation of several original structures.

In general, the concept of regional style in architecture is used to refer to the most diverse styles of the twentieth century, characterized by the use of traditions and customs in the construction of people inhabiting a particular region, designing in the light of the local climate and natural conditions.

Style began to take shape in the thirties of the last century. His emergence is due to a decrease in interest in the impersonal avant-garde with its geometric forms, the rejection of its aesthetics. By the middle of the twentieth century, regionalism had strengthened its position in response to the widespread implantation of modernism. At the same time, its active formation was under way. This period is characterized by a surge in tourism, as well as measures to restore the cities of Europe. The reconstruction activities subsequently became an independent trend in the creation of projects and research. Especially widely the reconstruction was developing in Italy, Austria, France. The formation of the regional style was influenced also by the creative search of architects from different places, who were striving to find methods of artistic identification of their homeland. In particular, this process is typical for states that have relatively recently become independent.

If we consider Scandinavia, then given the specific climatic conditions, the architecture quickly moved to a closed or semi-enclosed building. The houses were designed to be long, curvilinear in terms of the nature of the Scandinavian relief. Flat roofing was absolutely unsuitable in the conditions of the region, since on such roofs snow lay. A natural snowfall was provided by traditional pitched roofs with steep slopes. The use of traditional forms in architecture led to the preference for natural building materials. Volumes and furnishings of public buildings were marked by the search for aesthetic features of modern structures using natural building materials. An example can serve as bent wood-fiber materials. The brightest example of the expression of such a reception is the work of an outstanding architect from Finland, Alvar Aalto.