What is the difference between ERK and ERK1 2?
Protein sequences of ERK1 and ERK2 are 84% identical in a given mammal; human ERK1 is larger than human ERK2 due to an extension of 17 amino-acids at its N-terminal and 2 amino-acids at its C-terminal.
What is the ERK1 2 pathway?
The extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) cascade is a central signaling pathway that regulates a wide variety of stimulated cellular processes, including mainly proliferation, differentiation, and survival, but apoptosis and stress response as well.
What does ERK1 2 phosphorylation?
The ERK1/2 catalyzed phosphorylation of nuclear transcription factors including those of Ets, Elk, and c-Fos represents an important function and requires the translocation of ERK1/2 into the nucleus by active and passive processes involving the nuclear pore.
What happens when ERK is phosphorylated?
The phosphorylation of ERK results in an activation of its kinase activity and leads to phosphorylation of its many downstream targets involved in regulation of cell proliferation.
Does ERK translocate into nucleus?
Nuclear Functions of ERK The rapid and robust translocation of ERK into the nucleus, where it induces proliferation and other processes, was the impetus for revealing the underlying mechanisms which mediate ERK’s nuclear activities.
What does phosphorylation of ERK do?
What is ERK responsible for?
ERK1/2 Activation and Cell Death Although ERK activation has generally been associated with cell survival and proliferation, a number of studies show that depending on the stimuli and cell types involved, activation of ERK can mediate cell death.
What does ERK1/2 stand for?
Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) are members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase super family that can mediate cell proliferation and apoptosis.
How do you restore ERK1/2 nuclear translocation?
Pretreatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, which blocks Akt phosphorylation, restores ERK1/2 nuclear translocation and cell proliferation. Role of ERK in Fas-mediated Cell Death
How does ERK1/2 interact with importin7?
This detachment exposes ERK1/2 to additional phosphorylation on two serine residues (SPS motif) within the nuclear translocation signal (NTS) of the kinases. This additional phosphorylation allows ERK1/2 to interact with importin7, which consequently promotes their translocation to the nucleus.
Does ERK1/2 increase or decrease Akt activity?
In these cells, ERK1/2 decreases Akt activity and, because the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway regulates cell survival , ERK1/2 promotes cell death by suppressing survival signaling pathways.