What is soil swell factor?
The swell factor of soil is the amount of volume increase from the undisturbed (BCY) to the excavated (LCY) state due to the air pockets (fluff) created. Swelling pressure is the pressure that the expansive soil exerts if it is not allowed to swell or if the soil volume change is arrested.
How do you calculate swell factor?
Calculating the percentage change in height from the wet soil to the dry will give you a measure of the swell factor of the soil. For example, if the dry soil was 1 inch high and the wet soil is 1.54 inches high, divide 1 by 1.54 and multiply by 100 to get a 65 percent swell factor.
What is a shrinkage factor in earthwork?
The shrinkage factor indicates the reduction in volume of soil from the borrow pit stage to the final compacted stage, while the bulkage factor accounts for the increase in volume of the soil between the pit and the loose state in the truck.
How do you calculate shrinkage and swell?
Shrinkage = volume after compaction/volume before excavation. Both the loose and compacted volume are calculated from the bank volume. Example: If you are excavating dry clay it is listed as having a swell of 50% and a shrinkage of -10%.
What is the swell factor of clay?
1.8 – 2.6
Soil and rock expansion – or swell – after mining.
|Material||Density at the Borrow 103 (kg/m3)||Bulking (Swell) Factor (%)|
|Clay||1.8 – 2.6||20 – 40|
|Dolomite||2.8||50 – 60|
|Earth||20 – 30|
|Gneiss||2.69||75 – 80|
What is the swell factor of rock?
The swell factor is an adjustment representing this increase in volume and will decrease the need for fill material on the project. For example, if the volume of loose rock is 1.25 times greater than the bank volume it occupied prior to excavation, the rock’s swell factor is 1.25.
What is considered earthwork?
Earthwork shall consist of all necessary site clearing and grubbing, excavation and backfill for structures and trenches, site grading, grassing and restoration, as well as related work as shown on the plans and as specified herein.
Does sand shrink or swell?
Sand doesn’t shrink-swell, but it is prone to erosion. If proper drainage isn’t in place, then the sand will erode and settlement will occur.
What is a fill factor in earthwork?
n Fill factor: Compensates for the compaction factor of the fill material. For example, for a material that expands 15 percent, type the value 1.15. However, for a material that compacts to 93 percent of its original value, type 0.93. A factor of 1.00 does not adjust the volumes”
What is a swell factor in construction?
The swell factor is an adjustment representing this increase in volume and will decrease the need for fill material on the project. Physically, the act of excavation breaks up the rock into particles of various sizes. This creates more. air pockets and results in an effective increase in the rock’s void volume.
What are some examples of earthworks?
Typical earthworks include road construction, railway beds, causeways, dams, levees, canals, and berms. Other common earthworks are land grading to reconfigure the topography of a site, or to stabilize slopes.
What are Civil War earthworks?
In military terms, earthworks refer to fortifications constructed from dirt. Dirt is a very inexpensive resource, and when used in massive amounts it is the basis for a very strong and intimidating structure.
What is the swell factor of soil?
Swell Factors for Various Soils. A cubic yard of earth measured in its natural position swells to more than a cubic yard after it is excavated. This occurs because of an increase in voids. Swell is expressed as a percentage of natural volume, for example, if 10 yd 3 in the ground becomes 13 yd 3 after excavation, the swell factor is 30%.
What is the swell factor in civil engineering?
This occurs because of an increase in voids. Swell is expressed as a percentage of natural volume, for example, if 10 yd 3 in the ground becomes 13 yd 3 after excavation, the swell factor is 30%. The following table lists swell factors for various engineering materials.
What causes the swell factor to increase after excavation?
This occurs because of an increase in voids. Swell is expressed as a percentage of natural volume, for example, if 10 yd 3 in the ground becomes 13 yd 3 after excavation, the swell factor is 30%.
What is a swell in geology?
Excavated solid rock placed in a fill typically occupies a larger volume. This change in volume is the swell. When the voids in the rock embankment become filled with earth or other fine material, the volume in the fill will just about equal the combined volumes in the two source locations.