What is imperforate anus with perineal fistula?

What is imperforate anus with perineal fistula?

A perineal fistula is a type of anorectal malformation (ARM) that involves a misplaced anal passage that is often narrowed. With a perineal fistula, the abnormal anal opening is located outside of the sphincter muscle complex, such that the fistula usually has very few voluntary sphincter muscle fibers surrounding it.

What syndrome is associated with imperforate anus?

In some cases, imperforate anus occurs as part of a malformation syndrome, such as VACTERL association, a rare disorder that may be characterized by a spectrum of birth defects, including anal, skeletal, kidney (renal), heart (cardiac), and/or other abnormalities.

How is an Invertogram performed?

Invertogram. A coin/metal piece is placed over the expected anus and the baby is turned upside down (for a minimum 3 minutes). The distance of the gas bubble in the rectum from the metal piece is noted: >2 cm denotes high type.

Why do we use Invertogram?

An invertogram may be used to investigate the extent of the defect in anal or rectal atresia. The anus is marked with a radiopaque marker, and the baby inverted. A lateral radiograph is taken. The air in the rectum will rise to the highest point, giving an indication of the extent of the atresia.

How do you fix imperforate anus?

For mild imperforate anus defects: The first step involves enlarging the opening where the stool drains, so stool can pass more easily. Surgery involves closing any small tube-like openings (fistulas), creating an anal opening, and putting the rectal pouch into the anal opening. This is called an anoplasty.

What causes imperforate anus in newborn?

Imperforate anus is a problem that your child is born with. It happens when your child has a blocked or missing anus. The condition often occurs along with other problems. These can include issues with the urinary system or heart.

Why does imperforate anus occur?

Although the exact cause of imperforate anus is not fully understood, it is believed to be due to the abnormal development of the rectum when the embryo is forming inside the womb. Many forms of imperforate anus occur with other birth defects. Imperforate anus may also be part of a syndrome with multiple birth defects.

What is anovestibular fistula with a normal anus?

Anovestibular fistula (AVF) with a normal anus is a rare condition affecting only 3.2% of patients with anorectal malformations in the Western population [1]; however, higher incidences have been reported in Asian countries [2], [3].

What is an imperforate anus?

Anal atresia, or imperforate anus, refers to a spectrum of anorectal abnormalities ranging from a membranous separation to complete absence of the anus. The estimated incidence is 1 in 5000 live births.

What is imperforate anal atresia?

Imperforate anus or anal atresia is a congenital anorectal malformation (ARM) where a normal anal opening is absent at birth. ARMs comprise of a broad spectrum of defects ranging from minor (e.g., membranous covering) to complex cloacal malformations involving the urinary and genital tracts as well.[1] Thus prognosis may vary greatly.

How common is rectovestibular fistula in females?

Among anorectal malformations, rectovestibular fistula is known to be the commonest variety in females [1]. Anovestibular fistula (AVF) with a normal anus is a rare condition affecting only 3.2% of patients with anorectal malformations in the Western population [1]; however, higher incidences have been reported in Asian countries [2], [3].