What is an extranuclear gene?

What is an extranuclear gene?

Extranuclear inheritance would refer to any genes that are passed on from structures that are not in the nucleus. Extranuclear meaning outside of the nucleus. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are outside of the nucleus. When they are inherited, we refer to it as extranuclear inheritance.

Which organelle contains extranuclear genes?

It is now known that small circular chromosomes, called extranuclear, or cytoplasmic, DNA, are located in two types of organelles found in the cytoplasm of the cell. These organelles are the mitochondria in animal and plant cells and the chloroplasts in plant cells.

What is ploidy Chlamydomonas?

Reproduction. Vegetative cells of reinhardtii species are haploid with 17 small chromosomes. Under nitrogen starvation, vegetative cells differentiate into haploid gametes.

How are extranuclear genes inherited?

The DNA of these organelles is inherited by the offspring via the cytoplasm of the gametes (see cytoplasmic inheritance). In organisms in which one gamete is much larger than the other, so that the smaller gamete contains very little cytoplasm, one parent will contribute most or all of the extranuclear genes.

What comprises the extranuclear part?

This part is called the nucleus and all protons and neutrons are embedded in it. The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom or the number of electrons in its extra-nuclear part is called its atomic number and is denoted by Z.

What are stable atoms?

A stable atom has a net charge of 0. In other words, it has an equal number of protons and electrons. The positive protons cancel out the negative electrons. When the number of electrons does not equal the number of protons, the atom is ionized. (The atom is then called an ion).

Where is the extranuclear DNA located in eukaryotic cells?

DNA present outside the nucleus is known as extranuclear DNA. In eukaryotes, the extranuclear DNA is found in Mitochondria and chloroplast.

Is DNA found in the cytosol?

In prokaryotes the cytosol contains the cell’s genome, within a structure known as a nucleoid. This is an irregular mass of DNA and associated proteins that control the transcription and replication of the bacterial chromosome and plasmids.

Are Chlamydomonas haploid?

Chlamydomonas is a genus of unicellular green algae (Chlorophyta). The most widely used laboratory species is Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Cells of this species are haploid, and can grow on a simple medium of inorganic salts, using photosynthesis to provide energy.