What is a ZMC fracture?

What is a ZMC fracture?

ZMC fracture URL of Article Zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures, also known as tripod, tetrapod, quadripod, malar or trimalar fractures, are seen in the setting of traumatic injury to the face. They comprise fractures of the:

When is surgery indicated for zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures?

Surgical treatment of ZMC fractures is indicated when there is displacement of the bony fragments, and open reduction and in … The zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) has important aesthetic, structural, and functional roles that need to be preserved and/or restored during treatment of facial fractures.

What is a zygomatic complex fracture?

Zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures, also known as a tripod, tetrapod, quadripod, malar or trimalar fractures, are seen in the setting of traumatic injury to the face. They comprise fractures of the: zygomatic arch. inferior orbital rim, and anterior and posterior maxillary sinus walls.

When is one-point fixation sufficient for ZMC fractures?

It is generally accepted that sufficient stability is obtained with one-point fixation when there is no comminution of the ZMC fracture, with two-point and three-point fixation providing increasing stability where necessary, and often based on fracture comminution and surgeon’s preference [ 15].

The term ZMC fracture describes a spectrum of injuries that includes nondisplaced fractures, fractures displaced at an isolated buttress, and severely comminuted fractures with bone loss. Information about the degree and severity of the overall injury can be extrapolated from the location of the fractures.

How do you treat a ZMC fracture?

Most zygomatic complex fractures can be treated solely by an intraoral approach and rigid fixation at the zygomaticomaxillary buttress. Further exposure of the zygomaticofrontal junction or inferior orbital rim is necessary for severely displaced fractures, which require additional fixation.

Do ZMC fractures require surgery?

A review of the literature reveals that 77-94% of patients with zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures require surgical reduction. Many authors advocate closed reduction of ZMC fractures through more limited surgical approaches. Accurate closed reduction can be achieved in many cases.

Where is zygomaticomaxillary located?

The cause is usually a direct blow to the malar eminence of the cheek during assault. The paired zygomas each have two attachments to the cranium, and two attachments to the maxilla, making up the orbital floors and lateral walls. These complexes are referred to as the zygomaticomaxillary complex.

How do you prevent a ZMC fracture?

Some surgeons recommend placement of a plate to reduce and fixate the lateral wall of the orbit between the greater wing of the sphenoid and the zygoma. This helps to guarantee a proper reduction of this fracture. It can only be used if there is no comminution of the lateral wall of the orbit.

Where is Zygomaticomaxillary located?

What is the frontozygomatic suture?

Anatomical terminology. The zygomaticofrontal suture (or frontozygomatic suture) is the cranial suture between the zygomatic bone and the frontal bone. The suture can be palpated just lateral to the eye.

What is the maximum time a facial wound closure can be extended?

It appears that wounds of the face and scalp can be primarily closed whenever they are seen, as long as infection is not already present. There are significant data that primary closure of other wounds can be safely done up to a maximum of 19 hours after the wound.

What does ZMC stand for?


Acronym Definition
ZMC Zero Marginal Cost (production)
ZMC Experimental Metal-Clad Airship (US Navy)
ZMC Zinc Manganese Copper
ZMC Zion Methodist Church (various locations)

What are the different types of ZMC fractures and their treatment?

A survey was conducted regarding treatment of patients with different ZMC fractures that included a minimally displaced fracture (Case 1), a displaced fracture without diplopia (Case 2), a displaced fracture with diplopia (Case 3), and a complex comminuted fracture (Case 4).

Is zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture treatment different among surgical specialties?

Despite the prevalence of zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures, there is no consensus regarding the best approach to management. The aim of this study is to determine differences in ZMC fracture treatment among various surgical specialties.

How to determine the severity of displacement of ZMC?

Evaluation of orbits – to judge whether exploration of orbit is warranted and therefore involvement of oculoplastics Axial and coronal CT images are the most useful in determining location of severity of displacement of ZMC

What are the two major buttresses of the ZMC?

Buttresses: two major buttresses of the ZMC are the upper transverse maxillary (across the zygomaticomaxillary and zygomaticotemporal sutures) and the lateral vertical maxillary (across the zygomaticomaxillary and frontozygomatic sutures)