## What is a normal lumbosacral angle?

ABSTRACT : Determination of the lumbosacral angle in the upright position was performed on 319 normal males ranging in age from 1758 years, who had lumbosacral spine roentgenograms made as part of a routine preemployment examination. The mean was 41.1°, with a standard deviation of 7.7°.

## How is scoliosis angle measured?

Someone is considered to have scoliosis when the spine has a sideways curvature of at least 10 degrees, which is measured by the Cobb angle. With this measurement, doctors are able to judge the severity of the scoliosis, assess the curve and recommend treatment options.

**How do you measure a slip angle for spondylolisthesis?**

Slip is measured by dividing amount of displacement of cephalad vertebra by diameter of caudad vertebral body, expressed as percentage. Another important measurement is the determination of the degree of kyphosis between the involved segments, or the slip angle.

**How do you measure lumbar lordosis angle?**

Measuring Your Lordotic Curve

- An X-ray is the first step healthcare providers take to measure the lordotic curve.
- Adding to the confusion are characteristics you bring to the X-ray table.
- A 2001 study found that determining the Cobb angle is usually the most accurate for the low back.

### How do you find Cobb’s angle?

The measuring steps of the tilt angle method are as follows: (1) Draw the upper and lower end vertebra endplate connecting line on the film. (2) Measure the tilt angles of the upper and lower endplates. (3) Add the two measured results to get the Cobb angle.

### How is kyphosis angle measured?

The Cobb angle is considered to be the current gold standard method to measure kyphosis (16). Initially, the Cobb angle was developed to assess scoliosis angles. By modifying the direction of radiographic imaging from frontal to sagittal projection, the Cobb angle became useful to assess kyphosis angles (17).

**What is a normal Ferguson angle?**

Measurement of the Ferguson angle (also called the “sacrohorizontal angle”) might depict increased angulation between the lumbar spine and sacrum ( Fig. 8.19 ). The angle is measured between the upper endplate of S1 and a horizontal line. A value of ~ 34° is considered normal.

**What is the difference between Cobb and Ferguson angle?**

For Cobb angle, the greatest range of measurements on any film was 8 degrees (pooled SD = 1.3 degrees). For Ferguson angle the greatest range was also 8 degrees (pooled SD = 1.8 degrees). Ferguson angle was slightly more sensitive to incorrect selection of end vertebrae.

#### What is the greatest range of angle measurements on film?

For Cobb angle, the greatest range of measurements on any film was 8 degrees (pooled SD = 1.3 degrees). For Ferguson angle the greatest range was also 8 degrees (pooled SD = 1.8 degrees).

#### What is Ferguson’s technique?

METHOD Using Ferguson’s technique, thepatient liesonhisside with the long axis ofthe spine parallel tothelong axisoftheroent- genographic table, thus allowing the bot- tom ofthefilm tobeemployed asthe ref- erence lineB-C,with theangle 4being the lumbosacral angle.