What does Keyhole limpet hemocyanin do?
Introduction. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein of marine origin that induces both cell-mediated and humoral responses in animals and humans.
Is Keyhole limpet hemocyanin immunogenic?
Keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) is an immunogenic protein antigen that is xenogeneic to the mammalian immune system. It is used primarily in animal immunotoxicological studies but has a number of applications in the human context including as a vaccine conjugate peptide and in immunotherapy.
What is a KLH challenge?
The KLH challenge triggers the immune system with a novel antigen, resulting in a quantifiable immune response that can be pharmacologically modified. Previous studies have reported that immunomodulatory agents such as cyclosporine, methotrexate, rituximab and co-stimulation blockers can modify responses driven by KLH.
What does the widespread use of KLH mean for the keyhole limpet?
Use in biotechnology Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) is used extensively as a carrier protein in the production of antibodies for research, biotechnology and therapeutic applications.
Why is hemocyanin blue?
octopus, lobster, spider Hemocyanin contains copper that binds to oxygen, making the blood appear blue.
How big is KLH?
KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) is a copper-containing protein that is found in arthropods and mollusca. Therefore, it is an ideal carrier to use in mammalian hosts such as rabbits and mice. It is isolated from Megathura crenulata, and has a MW that ranges from 4.5 × 105 to 1.3 × 107 Da.
What is Xenogeneic antigen?
xenogeneic antigen an antigen common to members of one species but not to members of other species; called also heterogeneic antigen.
What is a TDAR?
The T-cell-dependent antibody response (TDAR) assay is a measure of immune function that is dependent upon the effectiveness of multiple immune processes, including antigen uptake and presentation, T cell help, B cell activation, and antibody production.
How does hemocyanin differ from hemoglobin?
hemocyanin is bigger than hemoglobin. It binds to 96 oxygen molecules, far more than the measly four bound by hemoglobin. Also, the hemocyanin molecules float free in the blood, whereas millions of the smaller hemo- globin molecules are packed into cells called red blood cells.
What is hemocyanin and its function?
Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins and abbreviated Hc) are proteins that transport oxygen throughout the bodies of some invertebrate animals. These metalloproteins contain two copper atoms that reversibly bind a single oxygen molecule (O2).
Is KLH still in business?
In January of 2017, KLH was purchased by Kelley Global Brands, owned by CEO David Kelley, audio industry veteran and entrepreneur. KLH is now located in Noblesville, Indiana, and is launching a brand new line of high-fidelity loudspeakers.
What determines immunogenicity?
Degree of immunogenicity depends on the degree of foreignness i.e. The greater the phylogenetic distances between two species, the greater the structural (and therefore the antigenic) disparity between them. Exceptions: Few substances with molecular mass less than 1000 Da have proven to be immunogenic.