What are paraventricular nuclei?

What are paraventricular nuclei?

The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is the major region in the brain of CRF-containing cell bodies and through axonal projections to the capillaries of the median eminence can secrete CRF directly into the portal system where it acts at the pituitary to regulate ACTH secretion into the circulation.

What does paraventricular nucleus produce?

Anatomically, it is adjacent to the third ventricle and many of its neurons project to the posterior pituitary. These projecting neurons secrete oxytocin and a smaller amount of vasopressin, otherwise the nucleus also secretes corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH).

What does the anterior nuclei do?

The anterior thalamus provides a subcortical circuit supporting memory and spatial navigation. The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN), a central component of Papez’ circuit, are generally assumed to be key constituents of the neural circuits responsible for certain categories of learning and memory.

Where is paraventricular nuclei located?

the hypothalamus
The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH), located in the ventral diencephalon adjacent to the third ventricle, is a highly conserved brain region present in species from zebrafish to humans.

Which nuclei make ADH?

The supraoptic nucleus (SON) contains neurosecretory cells that produce hormones (oxytocin and vasopressin/antidiuretic hormone).

What does the medial nuclei of the thalamus do?

The medial dorsal nucleus (or dorsomedial nucleus of thalamus) is a large nucleus in the thalamus. It receives inputs from the Pre-Frontal Cortex and the Limbic System and in turn relays them to the Pre-Frontal Association Cortex.

What are supraoptic nuclei?

The supraoptic nucleus is a collection of magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) located within the anterior hypothalamus that participate in the HPA axis. The primary function of these cells is to produce and secrete the peptide hormone vasopressin, also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin.

Where is oxytocin produced nuclei?

It is widely accepted that oxytocin is produced by neu-ronal cell bodies in the paraventricular (PVN) and the supraoptic nuclei (SON) of the hypothalamus which send their axons to the posterior pituitary.

What is the paraventricular nucleus?

Paraventricular nucleus: a site for the integration of neuroendocrine and autonomic mechanisms. Neuroendocrinology. 1980;31:410–417. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

What does the anterior nucleus of the paraventricular thalamus do?

Here, we showed that anterior nucleus of paraventricular thalamus (PVA) plays an essential … Anterior nucleus of paraventricular thalamus mediates chronic mechanical hyperalgesia Pain. 2019 May;160(5):1208-1223.doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001497.

How does angiotensin depolarize parvocellular neurons in paraventricular nucleus?

Latchford KJ, Ferguson AV. Angiotensin depolarizes parvocellular neurons in paraventricular nucleus through modulation of putative nonselective cationic and potassium conductances. Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol. 2005;289:R52–R58.

What is the dorsal premammillary and anterior hypothalamic nucleus?

In fact, the anterior hypothalamic nucleus, the dorsomedial part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, and the dorsal premammillary nucleus (PMd) are particularly interconnected, forming a partially segregated circuit in the medial zone of the hypothalamus, the so-called medial hypothalamic defensive circuit.