Do termites produce cellulase?
The intestinal flagellates of termites produce cellulases that contribute to cellulose digestion of their host termites.
How do termites convert cellulose?
In the lower termites, cellulose is digested by enzymes secreted both by the termites and by the protozoa. The end products of protozoal metabolism (acetate and butyrate) are thought to be used by termites as energy sources.
Can termites degrade cellulose?
It is also known that the higher termites degrade cellulose by using their own enzyme which were secreted by their gut and salivary glands (Breznak and Brune 1994; Ohkuma 2003; Ramin et al. 2008). Most termite gut flagellates are associated with bacterial symbionts.
Do termites have cellulose?
Cellulose. The food of termites is mainly cellulose, which is obtained from wood, grass, leaves, humus, manure of herbivorous animals, and materials of vegetative origin (e.g., paper, cardboard, cotton). Most lower termites and many higher ones feed on wood that is either sound or partly decayed.
Who produced the cellulase in the intestine of termite?
To digest cellulose, termites have to provide cellulolytic enzymes, i.e. cellulase produced by the termite itself and by the termite symbionts (Nakashima et al. 2002). Cellulose is a linear polymer of glucose linked through β-1,4-glycosidic linkages.
Why do termites digest cellulose?
The termites themselves do not have such enzymes in their body; they must rely on the microorganisms in their gut to provide it for them. The protozoa break up the wood cellulose into simple sugars which both organisms can digest.
Do termites digest lignin?
Termites have specialized digestive systems that overcome the lignin barrier in wood lignocellulose to efficiently release fermentable simple sugars; however, how termites specifically degrade lignin and tolerate its toxic byproducts remains unknown.
Who produces the cellulase in the intestine of termites?
Which protozoa digests cellulose in termites?
Mixotricha protozoans digest cellulose for termite metabolism.
What is cellulase made from?
Cellulase is catalyzing hydrolysis of cellulose. However, cellulase is not a single enzyme. It is a group of enzymes which is mainly composed of endoglucanase and exoglucanases including cellobiohydrolases and β-glucosidase.
What is the source of cellulase?
Cellulases are the enzymes that hydrolyze β -1,4 link- ages in cellulose chains. They are produced by fungi, bacteria, protozoans, plants, and animals. The catalytic modules of cellulases have been classified into numer- ous families based on their amino acid sequences and crystal structures ( Henrissat, 1991 ).